Ann Anat. Jul; doi: / Epub Apr 3. Medical Students’ Assessment of Eduard Pernkopf’s Atlas: Topographical. The following biography is mainly based on the article “The History of Eduard Pernkopf’s Topographische Anatomie des Menschen” (see bibliography) by David. A University of Vienna investigation determined in that Eduard Pernkopf’s anatomy department used bodies of executed prisoners from the Gestapo and.
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A few years later, the publisher brought out a condensed two-volume set with all the color plates, removing edurad of Pernkopf’s explanatory text and, later, airbrushing out the Nazi symbols Lepier and the others added to their signatures. He kept expanding it, and it became popular with the rest of the university instructors and the Austrian medical community.
They were joined by two new painters. Further, dduard say, its paintings are artistic masterpieces regardless of the politics of the artists.
Pernkopf instructed them to paint the organs they saw in as much detail as possible, to make them look like living tissue in print. Since then physicians have discussed whether it is ethical to use the atlas as it resulted from Nazi medical research.
It is our ambition to present a complete survey of all medical phenomena named for a person, with a biography of that person. Also inhe joined the Nazi Party ‘s foreign organization. Indeed, the only criticism expressed by Dr. Although he was ultimately never charged with any crimes, he was required to do regular hard labor throughout his imprisonment.
Some of the scientists who were involved in bringing the activities of Pernkopf and other Nazi-era anatomists to light advocate for the atlas’ continued use. Hochstetter became his mentor and one of his strongest influences. Since little translation was necessary, this was the version of the atlas which medical students and physicians elsewhere in the world came to know and revere.
This raises quite real ethical questions. The following year he became a member of the Sturmabteilungbetter known as the SA, Storm Troopers or “brownshirts”. What is an eponym? This is not a settled question, however. This occurred at about the same time as the AnschlussGermany’s annexation of Austria into the Third Reich.
In sharp contrast, the editors of the NEJM have not seen fit to allow critics to debate the murderous Nazi roots of the atlas in its pages. It covered the abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limbs. In his first official speech in his new capacity, Pernkopf issued the following charge to his faculty in words that clearly predict both euthanasia and eventual Holocaust:.
He forwarded a list of those who refused the latter to the university administration, who dismissed them from their jobs. Some years ago we were discussing the teaching of anatomy to medical students, and I mentioned that I use a specific anatomical atlas, written and illustrated by an anatomist named Eduard Pernkopf. Back in Vienna he rose quickly in the academic ranks. At the time he was first hired as Hochstetter’s assistant, he began putting together an informal dissection manual for students.
Lepier, Pernkopf’s first hire, had largely learned on his own after having to cut short his architectural studies at what is now Vienna University of Technology due to the death of his father, a circumstance similar to that which had shaped Pernkopf’s career choice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 7 November He required medical faculty to declare their ethnic lineage as either “Aryan” or “non-Aryan” and swear loyalty to Nazi leader Adolf Hitler.
The youngest of three sons, he seemed to be considering a career in music upon pernkopv completion pern,opf the Gymnasium in Horn. Howard Israel, an oral surgeon at Columbia Universityrevealed that the subject bodies may have in some cases been those of executed political prisoners. Four years later, inthe second volume, likewise requiring two books, came out. A medical eponym is thus any word related to medicine, whose name is derived from a person. Eduard Pernkopf November 24, — April 17, was an Austrian professor of anatomy who later served as rector of the University of Viennahis alma mater.
His fortunes would change radically as a result. Indeed, Richard Snell, M.
He worked hour days dissecting corpses, teaching classes and discharging his administrative responsibilities while a team of artists created the images that would eventually be in the atlas. Although never charged with war crimes, Pernkopf spent three years in an Allied prison camp near Salzburg after the war. Carson used human fetal tissue obtained from abortions in some of his research a pern,opf of decades ago. Medicine and Murder They continued working in the small space Hoff gave them.
It was published from Israel directed a request to the University of Vienna to investigate the issue. His article is a must for anybody who wants to know more about this subject. The request from Yad Vashem was initially denied; but the issue did not end. Bibliography Topographische Anatomie des Menschen. Questions have been raised recently about the edyard of using an atlas created by a Nazi and illustrated by dissections of cadavers whose identities are unknown, but who could have been victims of Nazi political terror.
Five years after that, inhe formally succeeded Hochstetter as the anatomical institute’s director. In the mid s, however, when the university’s wartime practices were investigated, it was assumed that Pernkopf arranged for the bodies of nearly people executed by the Gestapo, mostly for political reasons, to serve as models for the atlas’ drawings.
What should we do about Eduard Pernkopf’s atlas?
This survey of medical eponyms and the persons behind them is meant as a general interest site only. In Pernkopf and his atlas came into the focus of a controversy in scientific ethics following the publication of a paper by Professor Edzard Ernstwho had recently been chair of Rehabilitative Medicine at the University of Vienna that outlined the Nazi takeover of the university and highlighted the human experimentation that followed, including the role of Pernkopf himself.
Four days after becoming dean, he gave a speech to the medical faculty advocating Nazi racial hygiene theories and policies and urging his fellow physicians to implement them in their teaching and practice.