IEEE STD C57.12.90 PDF

3 Park Avenue. New York, NY USA. IEEE Power and Energy Society. IEEE Std C™/Cor (Corrigendum to. The definition of constant k in Equation 2 (in ) and line terminal rated voltage in the last paragraph of are corrected in this corrigendum. Define IEEE Standard C means the IEEE Standard Test Code for Liquid – Immersed Distribution, Power, and Regulating Transformers, ;.

Author: Fauktilar Arashim
Country: Kosovo
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Music
Published (Last): 26 March 2007
Pages: 499
PDF File Size: 19.44 Mb
ePub File Size: 11.77 Mb
ISBN: 438-4-24126-151-1
Downloads: 68113
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Kejora

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Downloaded on March st, at Authorized licensed use limited to: Instrument transformers, step-voltage and induction voltage regulators, arc furnace transformers, rectifier transformers, specialty transformers, grounding transformers, and mine transformers are excluded. Resistance measurements, polarity and phase-relation tests, ratio tests, no-load loss and excitation current measurements, impedance and load loss measurements, dielectric tests, temperature tests, short-circuit tests, audible sound level measurements, and calculated data are covered in this standard.

Published 11 March Printed in the United States of America. IEEE is a registered trademark in the U. For more information, visit http: No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Volunteers are not necessarily ste of the Institute and participate without compensation from IEEE. While IEEE administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the consensus development process, IEEE does not independently evaluate, test, or verify the accuracy of any of the information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its standards. IEEE does not warrant or represent the accuracy or content of the material contained in its standards, and expressly disclaims all warranties express, implied and statutory not included in this or any other document relating to the standard, including, but not limited to, the warranties of: In addition, IEEE disclaims any and all conditions relating to: The existence of an IEEE standard does not imply that there are no other ways to produce, test, measure, purchase, market, or provide other goods and services related to the scope of the IEEE standard.

Furthermore, the viewpoint expressed at the time a standard shd approved and issued is subject to change brought about through developments in the state of the art and comments received from users of the standard. In publishing and making its standards available, IEEE is not suggesting or rendering professional or other services for, or on behalf of, any person or entity nor is IEEE undertaking to perform any duty owed by any other person or entity to another.

Any person utilizing any IEEE Standards document, should rely upon his or her own independent judgment in the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the appropriateness of a given IEEE standard. At lectures, symposia, seminars, or educational courses, an individual presenting information on IEEE standards shall make it clear that his or her views should be considered the personal views of that individual rather than the formal position of IEEE.

Suggestions for changes in documents should be in the form of a proposed change of text, together with appropriate supporting comments. Since IEEE standards represent a consensus of concerned interests, it is important that any responses to comments and questions also receive the concurrence of a balance of interests. For this reason, IEEE and the members of its societies srd Standards Iese Committees are not able to provide an instant response to comments or questions except in those cases where the matter has previously been addressed.

For the same reason, IEEE does not respond to interpretation requests. Comments on standards should be submitted to the following address: Compliance with the provisions of any IEEE Standards document does not imply compliance to any applicable regulatory requirements. Implementers of the standard are responsible for observing or referring to the applicable regulatory requirements.

Definition of IEEE Standard C57.12.90

IEEE does not, by the publication of its standards, intend to urge action that is not in compliance with applicable laws, and these documents may not be construed as doing so.

They are made available by IEEE and are adopted for a wide variety of both public and private uses. These include both use, by reference, in laws and regulations, and use in c57.1290 self-regulation, standardization, and the promotion of engineering practices and methods. By making these documents available for use and adoption by public authorities and private users, IEEE does not waive any rights in copyright to the documents. Photocopies Subject to payment of the appropriate fee, IEEE will grant users a limited, non-exclusive license to photocopy portions of any individual standard for company or organizational internal use or individual, non-commercial use only.

  EDWARD SOJA POSTMODERN GEOGRAPHIES PDF

Permission to photocopy atd of any individual standard for educational classroom use can also be obtained through the Copyright Clearance Center. An official IEEE document at any point in time consists of the current edition of the document together with any amendments, corrigenda, or errata then in effect. Every IEEE standard ieeee subjected to review at least every ten years. When a document is more than ten years old and has not undergone a revision process, it is reasonable to conclude that its contents, although still of some value, do not wholly reflect the present state of the art.

Users are cautioned to check to determine that they have the latest edition of any IEEE standard.

IEEE Standard C | legal definition of IEEE Standard C by

In order to determine whether a given document is the current edition and whether it has been amended through the issuance of amendments, corrigenda, or errata, visit the IEEE-SA Website at http: Users are encouraged to check this URL for errata periodically.

Patents Attention is called to the possibility that implementation of this standard may require use of subject matter covered by patent rights. By publication of this standard, no position is taken by the IEEE with respect to the existence or validity of any patent rights in connection therewith.

Letters of Assurance may indicate whether the Submitter is willing or unwilling to grant licenses under patent rights without compensation or under reasonable rates, with reasonable terms and conditions that are demonstrably free of any unfair discrimination to applicants desiring to obtain such licenses. Essential Patent Claims may exist for which a Letter of Assurance has not been received.

The IEEE is not responsible for identifying Essential Patent Claims for which a license may be required, for conducting inquiries into the legal validity or scope of Patents Claims, or determining whether any licensing terms or conditions provided in connection with submission of a Letter of Assurance, if any, or in any licensing agreements are reasonable or non-discriminatory. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility.

Balloters may have voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention. Shellhammer Ted Burse David J. Petersen Daidi Zhong Annette D. This document is a voluntary consensus standard. Its use may become mandatory only when required by a duly constituted legal authority or when specified in a contractual relationship.

To meet specialized needs and to allow innovation, specific changes are permissible when mutually determined by the purchaser and manufacturer, provided that such changes do not violate existing laws and are considered technically adequate for the function intended. This standard is on a continuous revision cycle and is c75.12.90 being reviewed and updated.

One syd go to the website www. The following is a brief summary of the non-editorial changes in this revision: The number of full wave impulses applied during the test sequence has increased from one to two or three. Multiple references are added to Annex D. Technical revisions were prepared by various groups within the IEEE Transformers Committee and have been surveyed and approved by these groups up through the subcommittee level.

Polarity and phase-relation tests No-load losses and excitation current Load losses and impedance voltage IEEE Standards documents are not intended to ensure safety, security, health, or environmental protection, or ensure against interference with or from other devices or networks.

Implementers of IEEE Standards documents are responsible for determining and complying with all appropriate safety, security, environmental, health, and interference protection practices and all applicable laws and regulations. This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. It is intended for use as a basis for performance and proper testing of such transformers. This standard applies to all liquid-immersed transformers, except instrument transformers, step-voltage and induction voltage regulators, arc furnace transformers, rectifier transformers, specialty transformers, grounding transformers, and mine transformers.

  A PAZ PERPETUA E OUTROS OPUSCULOS PDF

Transformer requirements and specific test criteria are not a part of this standard, but they are contained in appropriate standards, such as IEEE Std C Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document i. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document including any amendments or corrigenda applies. Definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

The time interval from the start of the transient to the time when the maximum amplitude is reached. The sound pressure level measured at the test facility or at the substation without the transformer energized. Loudness that is measured with a sound level meter using the A-weighted response filter that is built into the meter circuitry.

The A-weighting filter is commonly used to measure community noise, and it simulates the frequency response of the human ear. Loudness that is measured with a sound level meter using the C-weighted filter that is built into the sound level meter. The C-weighting has only little dependence on frequency over the greater part of the audible frequency range.

The ratio of the useful power output of a transformer to the total power input. One or more conducting elements arranged and connected on an electrical instrument or measuring circuit to divert unwanted currents from the measuring means. A room with a solid floor and an undetermined amount of sound-absorbing materials on the walls and ceiling.

The time interval from the start of the transient to the time when the first voltage zero occurs on the tail of the wave. The sum of the no-load losses and the load losses. NOTE—To minimize potential problems for the transformer during testing, the resistance, polarity, phase relation, ratio, no-load loss and excitation current, impedance, and load loss tests and temperature-rise tests, when applicable should precede dielectric tests.

Using this sequence, the beginning tests involve voltages and currents, which are usually reduced as compared with rated values, thus tending to minimize problematic effects to the transformer. Resistance measurements Resistance measurements are of fundamental importance for the following purposes: The precautions in 5. It should not be assumed that the windings are at the same temperature as the surrounding air. In addition, it may be necessary to convert the resistance measurements to the temperature at which the impedance loss measurements were made.

The conversions are accomplished by Equation 1: To use this method, the following steps should be taken: Electronic switching power supplies may be used as voltage sources; however, batteries or filtered rectifiers may also be used, especially in instances where less ripple is desired in the measurement. Automatic recording of the resistance data is recommended so that the time to saturation and the variability of the resistance readings after stabilization can be documented.

This step is to avoid including in the reading the resistances of current-carrying leads and their contacts and of extra lengths of leads. To protect test personnel from inductive kick, the current may be switched off by a suitably insulated switch with a protective circuit to discharge the energy. That period of time should be allowed to elapse before taking the first reading when final winding hot-resistance measurements are being made.

The residual flux in the core should be made the same for both the cold-resistance and hot- resistance measurements by saturating the core with direct current prior to the measurement. In general, the winding will exhibit a long time constant.

To reduce the time required for the current to reach its steady-state value, a noninductive external resistor may be added in series with the dc source. It may then be necessary to increase the source voltage to compensate for the voltage drop in the series resistor. The time will also be reduced by passing a direct current through other windings in either the same polarity as the winding being tested for windings on the same phase or opposite polarity for other phases during these tests.